Colloidal quantum dots (QDs) exhibit unique characteristics such as facile color tunability, pure color emission with extremely narrow bandwidths, high luminescence efficiency, and high photostability. In addition, quantum dot light-emitting diodes (QLEDs) feature bright electroluminescence, low turn-on voltage, and ultrathin form factor, making them a promising candidate for next-generation displays. To achieve the overarching goal of the full-color display based on the electroluminescence of QDs, however it is essential to enhance the performance of QLEDs further for each color (e.g., red, green, and blue; RGB) and develop novel techniques for patterning RGB QD pixels without cross-contamination. Here, we present state-of-the-art material, process, and device technologies for full-color QLED-based displays. First, we highlight recent advances in the development of efficient red-, green-, and blue-monochromatic QLEDs. In particular, we focus on the progress of heavy-metal-free QLEDs. Then, we describe patterning techniques for individual RGB QDs to fabricate pixelated displays. Finally, we briefly summarize applications of such QLEDs, presenting the possibility of full-color QLED-based displays.