Carbon-Based Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries, Electrochemical Capacitors, and Their Hybrid Devices
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- Carbon-Based Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries, Electrochemical Capacitors, and Their Hybrid Devices
- Fei Yao; Duy Tho Pham; Young Hee Lee
- CHEMSUSCHEM, v.8, no.14, pp.2284 - 2311
- WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH
- A rapidly developing market for portable electronic devices and hybrid electrical vehicles requires an urgent supply of mature energy-storage systems. As a result, lithium-ion batteries and electrochemical capacitors have lately attracted broad attention. Nevertheless, it is well known that both devices have their own drawbacks. With the fast development of nanoscience and nanotechnology, various structures and materials have been proposed to overcome the deficiencies of both devices to improve their electrochemical performance further. In this Review, electrochemical storage mechanisms based on carbon materials for both lithium-ion batteries and electrochemical capacitors are introduced. Non-faradic processes (electric double-layer capacitance) and faradic reactions (pseudocapacitance and intercalation) are generally explained. Electrochemical performance based on different types of electrolytes is briefly reviewed. Furthermore, impedance behavior based on Nyquist plots is discussed. We demonstrate the influence of cell conductivity, electrode/electrolyte interface, and ion diffusion on impedance performance. We illustrate that relaxation time, which is closely related to ion diffusion, can be extracted from Nyquist plots and compared between lithium-ion batteries and electrochemical capacitors. Finally, recent progress in the design of anodes for lithium-ion batteries, electrochemical capacitors, and their hybrid devices based on carbonaceous materials are reviewed. Challenges and future perspectives are further discussed. Mad LIBs: Electrochemical storage mechanisms based on carbon materials for both lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and electrochemical capacitors (ECs) are introduced. Non-faradic processes, faradic reactions, electrochemical performance, impedance behavior, cell conductivity, electrode/electrolyte interface, and ion diffusion are explained. Finally, recent progress in the design of anodes for LIBs, ECs, and their hybrids are reviewed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
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