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복잡계 자기조립 연구단
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Holding-Oriented versus Gating-Oriented Live-Cell Distinction: Highlighting the Role of Transporters in Cell Imaging Probe Development

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Title
Holding-Oriented versus Gating-Oriented Live-Cell Distinction: Highlighting the Role of Transporters in Cell Imaging Probe Development
Author(s)
Choi, YK; Jong-Jin Kim; Young-Tae Chang
Publication Date
2019-11
Journal
ACCOUNTS OF CHEMICAL RESEARCH, v.52, no.11, pp.3097 - 3107
Publisher
AMER CHEMICAL SOC
Abstract
Small molecule imaging probes are powerful tools to understand complex biological systems. The mainstreams of imaging probe developments have been focused on the target holding of the probes; the holding targets are often cell-type-specific biomarkers. This type of the probe mechanism can be designated as holding-oriented live-cell distinction (HOLD). Our group has worked on the development of cell-type-selective probes using a diversity-oriented fluorescence library approach (DOFLA), where unbiased phenotypic screening is employed using fluorescent library compounds. Through the conventional target identification methods such as an affinity-based analysis, we elucidated that some of the probe mechanisms are HOLD. However, we also realized that sometimes there is no specific holding target for probes or the holding targets are ubiquitous. The observation led us to test an alternative mechanism of cell-type-specific probes as gating-oriented live-cell distinction (GOLD). We started to examine the gating mechanism of probes, which is mainly based on transporters but which does not necessarily require probe holding to cellular targets. Transporters can control the in and out movement of various nutrients and chemicals. Different expression levels of transporters in various cell types could provide the molecular mechanism of differential staining of cells by regulating the intracellular accumulation of a certain specific probe. A number of GOLD probes have been developed by modifying or mimicking endogenous substrates of transporters such as inorganic ions, glucose, amino acids, or neurotransmitters, utilizing broad substrate specificity of transporters. The radiolabeled or fluorophore-conjugated substrate mimetics have been widely used for live cell distinction and various applications such as disease-related cell or tissue imaging. In humans, there are about 400 solute carrier (SLC) transporters and 50 ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. Since some transporters have broad substrate specificity, they can transport not only derivatives of endogenous natural substrates but also totally synthetic diverse imaging probes, such as DOFLA probes. Without preconsidering the structure of endogenous substrates, we recently demonstrated a series of live-cell imaging probes and elucidated their molecular mechanism as a gating one, either by SLC or ABC transporters. Transporter inhibitor panel and CRISPR-based transporter libraries could provide a systematic gating target elucidation platform. Considering the generality of DOFLA and the CRISPR-based genomic tool for transporter systems (>450 in humans), the GOLD approach will offer new insight and promise for unprecedented levels of novel cell imaging probe development. © 2019 American Chemical Society
URI
https://pr.ibs.re.kr/handle/8788114/6791
ISSN
0001-4842
Appears in Collections:
Center for Self-assembly and Complexity(복잡계 자기조립 연구단) > Journal Papers (저널논문)
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