Detection of a Cooper-pair density wave in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x Highly Cited Paper

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Title
Detection of a Cooper-pair density wave in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x
Author(s)
M. H. Hamidian; S. D. Edkins; Sang Hyun Joo; A. Kostin; H. Eisaki; S. Uchida; M. J. Lawler; E.-A. Kim; A. P. Mackenzie; K. Fujita; Jinho Lee; J. C. Séamus Davis
Publication Date
2016-04
Journal
NATURE, v.532, no.7599, pp.343 - 347
Publisher
NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP
Abstract
The quantum condensate of Cooper pairs forming a superconductor was originally conceived as being translationally invariant. In theory, however, pairs can exist with finite momentum Q, thus generating a state with a spatially modulated Cooper-pair density1,2. Such a state has been created in ultracold 6Li gas3 but never observed directly in any superconductor. It is now widely hypothesized that the pseudogap phase4 of the copper oxide superconductors contains such a ‘pair density wave’ state5–21. Here we report the use of nanometre-resolution scanned Josephson tunnelling microscopy22–24 to image Cooper pair tunnelling from a d-wave superconducting microscope tip to the condensate of the superconductor Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x. We demonstrate condensate visualization capabilities directly by using the Cooper-pair density variations surrounding zinc impurity atoms25 and at the Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x crystal supermodulation26. Then, by using Fourier analysis of scanned Josephson tunnelling images, we discover the direct signature of a Cooper-pair density modulation at wavevectors QP ≈ (0.25, 0)2π/a0 and (0, 0.25)2π/a0 in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x. The amplitude of these modulations is about five per cent of the background condensate density and their form factor exhibits primarily s or s′ symmetry. This phenomenology is consistent with Ginzburg–Landau theory5,13,14 when a charge density wave5,27 with d-symmetry form factor28–30 and wavevector QC = QP coexists with a d-symmetry superconductor; it is also predicted by several contemporary microscopic theories for the pseudogap phase18–21. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved
URI
https://pr.ibs.re.kr/handle/8788114/2451
ISSN
0028-0836
Appears in Collections:
Center for Correlated Electron Systems(강상관계 물질 연구단) > Journal Papers (저널논문)
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