Advantages of chemical exchange-sensitive spin-lock (CESL) over chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) for hydroxyl- and amine-water proton exchange studies

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Title
Advantages of chemical exchange-sensitive spin-lock (CESL) over chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) for hydroxyl- and amine-water proton exchange studies
Author(s)
Jin, T; Seong Gi Kim
Publication Date
2014-11
Journal
NMR IN BIOMEDICINE, v.27, no.11, pp.1313 - 1324
Publisher
WILEY-BLACKWELL
Abstract
The chemical exchange (CE) rate of endogenous hydroxyl and amine protons with water is often comparable to the difference in their chemical shifts. These intermediate exchange processes have been imaged by the CE saturation transfer (CEST) approach with low-power and long-duration irradiation. However, the sensitivity is not optimal and, more importantly, the signal is contaminated by slow magnetization transfer processes. Here, the properties of CEST signals are compared with those of a CE-sensitive spin-lock (CESL) technique irradiating at the labile proton frequency. First, using a higher power and shorter irradiation in CE-MRI, we obtain: (i) an increased selectivity to faster CE rates via a higher sensitivity to faster CEs and a lower sensitivity to slower CEs and magnetization transfer processes; and (ii) a decreased in vivo asymmetric magnetization transfer contrastmeasured at ±15 ppm. The sensitivity gain of CESL over CEST is higher for a higher power and shorter irradiation. Unlike CESL, CEST signals oscillate at a very high power and short irradiation. Second, time-dependent CEST and CESL signals are well modeled by analytical solutions of CE-MRI with an asymmetric population approximation, which can be used for quantitative CE-MRI and validated by simulations of Bloch–McConnell equations and phantom experiments. Finally, the in vivo amine–water proton exchange contrast measured at 2.5 ppm with ω1 = 500 Hz is 18% higher in sensitivity for CESL than CEST at 9.4 T. Overall, CESL provides better exchange rate selectivity and sensitivity than CEST; therefore, CESL is more suitable for CE-MRI of intermediate exchange protons. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
URI
https://pr.ibs.re.kr/handle/8788114/1451
ISSN
0952-3480
Appears in Collections:
Center for Neuroscience Imaging Research (뇌과학 이미징 연구단) > Journal Papers (저널논문)
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