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Volatile Droplets on Water are Sculpted by Vigorous Marangoni-Driven Subphase Flow

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Title
Volatile Droplets on Water are Sculpted by Vigorous Marangoni-Driven Subphase Flow
Author(s)
Yitan Li; Chen, Yuguang; Li, Yan; Howard A. Stone; Amir A. Pahlavan; Steve Granick
Publication Date
2023-11
Journal
Langmuir, v.39, no.46, pp.16272 - 16283
Publisher
American Chemical Society
Abstract
The shapes of highly volatile oil-on-water droplets become strongly asymmetric when they are out of equilibrium. The unsaturated organic vapor atmosphere causes evaporation and leads to a strong Marangoni flow in the bath, unlike that previously seen in the literature. Inspecting these shapes experimentally on millisecond and submillimeter time and length scales and theoretically by scaling arguments, we confirm that Marangoni-driven convection in the subphase mechanically stresses the droplet edges to an extent that increases for organic droplets of smaller contact angle and accordingly smaller thickness. The viscous stress generated by the subphase overcomes the thermodynamic Laplace pressure. The oil droplets develop copious regularly spaced fingers, and these fingers develop spike-shaped and branched treelike structures. Unlike this behavior for single-component (surfactant-free) oil droplets, droplets composed of two miscible (surfactant-free) organic liquids develop a rim of the less volatile component along the droplet perimeter, from which jets of monodisperse smaller droplets eject periodically due to the Rayleigh-Plateau instability. When evaporation shrinks droplets to μm size, their shapes fluctuate chaotically, and ellipsoidal shapes rupture into smaller daughter droplets when subphase convection flow pulls them in opposite directions. The shape of the evaporating oil droplets is kneaded and sculpted by vigorous flow in the water subphase. © 2023 American Chemical Society.
URI
https://pr.ibs.re.kr/handle/8788114/14426
DOI
10.1021/acs.langmuir.3c01678
ISSN
0743-7463
Appears in Collections:
Center for Soft and Living Matter(첨단연성물질 연구단) > 1. Journal Papers (저널논문)
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