Block copolymers (BCP) are self-assembling polymeric materials that have been extensively investigated for
several decades. Recently, directed self-assembly (DSA) of BCPs has received enormous research attention
from both academia and industry as next-generation nanolithography technology. This article provides a
brief introduction to (i) the spontaneous and directed self-assembly of BCPs, (ii) the orientation and lateral
ordering of BCP nanopatterns and their relationships with DSA strategies, (iii) various potential applications
of BCP nanopatterning, and (iv) mussel-inspired BCP nanopatterning for arbitrary substrate materials
including low surface energy materials.