A cell, the fundamental unit of life, contains the requisite blueprint information necessary to survive and to build tissues, organs, and systems, eventually forming a fully functional living creature. A slight structural alteration can result in data misprinting, throwing the entire life process off balance. Advances in synthetic biology and cell engineering enable the predictable redesign of biological systems to perform novel functions. Individual functions and fundamental processes at the core of the biology of cells can be investigated by employing a synthetically constrained micro or nanoreactor. However, constructing a life-like structure from nonliving building blocks remains a considerable challenge. Chemical compartments, cascade signaling, energy generation, growth, replication, and adaptation within micro or nanoreactors must be comparable with their biological counterparts. Although these reactors currently lack the power and behavioral sophistication of their biological equivalents, their interface with biological systems enables the development of hybrid solutions for real-world applications, such as therapeutic agents, biosensors, innovative materials, and biochemical microreactors. This review discusses the latest advances in cell membrane-engineered micro or nanoreactors, as well as the limitations associated with high-throughput preparation methods and biological applications for the real-time modulation of complex pathological states.