Dynamic manipulation of supramolecular self-assembled structures is achieved irreversibly or under non-physiological conditions, thereby limiting their biomedical, environmental, and catalysis applicability. In this study, microgels composed of azobenzene derivatives stacked via pi-cation and pi-pi interactions are developed that are electrostatically stabilized with Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-bearing anionic polymers. Lateral swelling of RGD-bearing microgels occurs via cis-azobenzene formation mediated by near-infrared-light-upconverted ultraviolet light, which disrupts intermolecular interactions on the visible-light-absorbing upconversion-nanoparticle-coated materials. Real-time imaging and molecular dynamics simulations demonstrate the deswelling of RGD-bearing microgels via visible-light-mediated trans-azobenzene formation. Near-infrared light can induce in situ swelling of RGD-bearing microgels to increase RGD availability and trigger release of loaded interleukin-4, which facilitates the adhesion structure assembly linked with pro-regenerative polarization of host macrophages. In contrast, visible light can induce deswelling of RGD-bearing microgels to decrease RGD availability that suppresses macrophage adhesion that yields pro-inflammatory polarization. These microgels exhibit high stability and non-toxicity. Versatile use of ligands and protein delivery can offer cytocompatible and photoswitchable manipulability of diverse host cells.