Complex nanopatterns integrating diverse nanocomponents are crucial requirements for advanced photonics and electronics. Currently, such multicomponent nanopatterns are principally created by colloidal nanoparticle assembly, where large-area processing of highly ordered nanostructures raises significant challenge. We present multicomponent nanopatterns enabled by block copolymer (BCP) self-assembly, which offers device oriented sub-10-nm scale nanopatterns with arbitrary large-area scalability. In this approach, BCP nanopatterns direct the nanoscale lateral ordering of the overlaid second level BCP nanopatterns to create the superimposed multicomponent nanopatterns incorporating nanowires and nanodots. This approach introduces diverse chemical composition of metallic elements including Au, Pt, Fe, Pd, and Co into sub-10-nm scale nanopatterns. As immediate applications of multicomponent nanopatterns, we demonstrate multilevel charge-trap memory device with Pt-Au binary nanodot pattern and synergistic plasmonic properties of Au nanowire-Pt nanodot pattern.