In recent studies related to bioelectronics, significant efforts have been made to form 3D electrodes to increase the effective surface area or to optimize the transfer of signals at tissue-electrode interfaces. Although bioelectronic devices with 2D and flat electrode structures have been used extensively for monitoring biological signals, these 2D planar electrodes have made it difficult to form biocompatible and uniform interfaces with nonplanar and soft biological systems (at the cellular or tissue levels). Especially, recent biomedical applications have been expanding rapidly toward 3D organoids and the deep tissues of living animals, and 3D bioelectrodes are getting significant attention because they can reach the deep regions of various 3D tissues. An overview of recent studies on 3D bioelectronic devices, such as the use of electrical stimulations and the recording of neural signals from biological subjects, is presented. Subsequently, the recent developments in materials and fabrication processing to 3D micro- and nanostructures are introduced, followed by broad applications of these 3D bioelectronic devices at various in vitro and in vivo conditions.