Extended reality (XR) refers to a space where physical and digital elements coexist and comprises three elements, namely, environment, human, and computer, which interact with each other. Image sensors and displays are the core elements of XR systems because visual information is important for recognizing and judging objects. Recently, new features of image sensors and displays that are useful for developing next-generation XR systems have been reported. For example, a miniaturized version of image sensors with the superb object detection and recognition capability offers new opportunities for machine vision technology. Furthermore, transparent and deformable displays are the key components of XR systems because they not only provide highly realistic virtual image information but also serve as efficient user interfaces. Herein, the recent progresses in such unconventional image sensors and display technologies are reviewed. First, image sensors with features of wavelength-selective photodetection for color discrimination, neuromorphic image acquisition for facile pattern recognition, and curved image sensor designs inspired by biological eyes for miniaturization and unconventional imaging performances are discussed. Then, light-emitting device technologies focusing on devices with transparency and deformable form factors are described. Finally, the review is concluded with a brief summary and a future outlook.