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The tripartite glutamatergic synapse

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Title
The tripartite glutamatergic synapse
Author(s)
Lalo, Ulyana; Wuhyun Koh; C. Justin Lee; Pankratov, Yuriy
Publication Date
2021-11-01
Journal
Neuropharmacology, v.199
Publisher
Elsevier Ltd
Abstract
© 2021Astroglial cells were long considered as structural and metabolic supporting cells are which do not directly participate in information processing in the brain. Discoveries of responsiveness of astrocytes to synaptically-released glutamate and their capability to release agonists of glutamate receptors awakened extensive studies of glia-neuron communications and led to the revolutionary changes in our understanding of brain cellular networks. Nowadays, astrocytes are widely acknowledged as inseparable element of glutamatergic synapses and role for glutamatergic astrocyte-neuron interactions in the brain computation is emerging. Astroglial glutamate receptors, in particular of NMDA, mGluR3 and mGluR5 types, can activate a variety of molecular cascades leading astroglial-driven modulation of extracellular levels of glutamate and activity of neuronal glutamate receptors. Their preferential location to the astroglial perisynaptic processes facilitates interaction of astrocytes with individual excitatory synapses. Bi-directional glutamatergic communication between astrocytes and neurons underpins a complex, spatially-distributed modulation of synaptic signalling thus contributing to the enrichment of information processing by the neuronal networks. Still, further research is needed to bridge the substantial gaps in our understanding of mechanisms and physiological relevance of astrocyte-neuron glutamatergic interactions, in particular ability of astrocytes directly activate neuronal glutamate receptors by releasing glutamate and, arguably, D-Serine. An emerging roles for aberrant changes in glutamatergic astroglial signalling, both neuroprotective and pathogenic, in neurological and neurodegenerative diseases also require further investigation.
URI
https://pr.ibs.re.kr/handle/8788114/10313
DOI
10.1016/j.neuropharm.2021.108758
ISSN
0028-3908
Appears in Collections:
Center for Cognition and Sociality(인지 및 사회성 연구단) > 1. Journal Papers (저널논문)
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