Maintaining organelle function in the face of stress is known to involve organelle-specific retrograde signaling. Using Caenorhabditis elegans, we present evidence of the existence of such retrograde signaling for peroxisomes, which we define as the peroxisomal retrograde signaling (PRS). Specifically, we show that peroxisomal import stress caused by knockdown of the peroxisomal matrix import receptor prx-5/PEX5 triggers NHR-49/peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPAR alpha)- and MDT-15/MED15-dependent upregulation of the peroxisomal Lon protease lonp-2/LONP2 and the peroxisomal catalase ctl-2/CAT. Using proteomic and transcriptomic analyses, we show that proteins involved in peroxisomal lipid metabolism and immunity are also upregulated upon prx-5(RNAi). While the PRS can be triggered by perturbation of peroxisomal beta-oxidation, we also observed hallmarks of PRS activation upon infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We propose that the PRS, in addition to a role in lipid metabolism homeostasis, may act as a surveillance mechanism to protect against pathogens.