Characterization of the Hamamatsu VUV4 MPPCs for nEXO

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Title
Characterization of the Hamamatsu VUV4 MPPCs for nEXO
Author(s)
Gallina G.; Giampa P.; Retiere F.; Kroeger J.; Zhang G.; Ward M.; Margetak P.; Li G.; Tsang T.; Doria L.; Al Kharusi S.; Alfaris M.; Anton G.; Arnquist I.J.; Badhrees I.; Barbeau P.S.; Beck D.; Belov V.; Bhatta T.; Blatchford J.; Brodsky J.P.; Brown E.; Brunner T.; Cao G.F.; Cao L.; Cen W.R.; Chambers C.; Charlebois S.A.; Chiu M.; Cleveland B.; Coon M.; Craycraft A.; Dalmasson J.; Daniels T.; Darroch L.; Daugherty S.J.; De St. Croix A.; Der Mesrobian-Kabakian A.; DeVoe R.; Dilling J.; Ding Y.Y.; Dolinski M.J.; Dragone A.; Echevers J.; Elbeltagi M.; Fabris L.; Fairbank D.; Fairbank W.; Farine J.; Feyzbakhsh S.; Fontaine R.; Gautam P.; Giacomini G.; Gornea R.; Gratta G.; Hansen E.V.; Heffner M.; Hoppe E.W.; Hossl J.; House A.; Hughes M.; Ito Y.; Iverson A.; Jamil A.; Jewell M.J.; Jiang X.S.; Karelin A.; Kaufman L.J.; Kodroff D.; Koffas T.; Krucken R.; Kuchenkov A.; Kumar K.S.; Lan Y.; Larson A.; Lenardo B.G.; Leonard Douglas; Li S.; Li Z.; Licciardi C.; Lin Y.H.; Lv P.; MacLellan R.; McElroy T.; Medina-Peregrina M.; Michel T.; Mong B.; Moore D.C.; Murray K.; Nakarmi P.; Newby R.J.; Ning Z.; Njoya O.; Nolet F.; Nusair O.; Odgers K.; Odian A.; Oriunno M.; Orrell J.L.; Ortega G.S.; Ostrovskiy I.; Overman C.T.; Parent S.; Piepke A.; Pocar A.; Pratte J.-F.; Qiu D.; Radeka V.; Raguzin E.; Rescia S.; Richman M.; Robinson A.; Rossignol T.; Rowson P.C.; Roy N.; Saldanha R.; Sangiorgio S.; Skarpaas K.; Soma A.K.; St-Hilaire G.; Stekhanov V.; Stiegler T.; Sun X.L.; Tarka M.; Todd J.; Tolba T.; Totev T.I.; Tsang R.; Vachon F.; Veeraraghavan V.; Visser G.; Vuilleumier J.-L.; Wagenpfeil M.; Walent M.; Wang Q.; Watkins J.; Weber M.; Wei W.; Wen L.J.; Wichoski U.; Wu S.X.; Wu W.H.; Wu X.; Xia Q.; Yang H.; Yang L.; Yen Y.-R.; Zeldovich O.; Zhao J.; Zhou Y.; Ziegler T.
Publication Date
2019-10
Journal
NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION A-ACCELERATORS SPECTROMETERS DETECTORS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT , v.940, no., pp.371 - 379
Publisher
ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Abstract
© 2019 Elsevier B.V.In this paper we report on the characterization of the Hamamatsu VUV4 (S/N: S13370-6152) Vacuum Ultra-Violet (VUV) sensitive Multi-Pixel Photon Counters (MPPC)s as part of the development of a solution for the detection of liquid xenon scintillation light for the nEXO experiment. Various MPPC features, such as: dark noise, gain, correlated avalanches, direct crosstalk and Photon Detection Efficiency (PDE) were measured in a dedicated setup at TRIUMF. MPPCs were characterized in the range 163K≤T≤233K. At an over voltage of 3.1±0.2 V and at T=163K we report a number of Correlated Avalanches (CAs) per pulse in the 1μs interval following the trigger pulse of 0.161±0.005. At the same settings the Dark-Noise (DN) rate is 0.137±0.002Hz/mm2. Both the number of CAs and the DN rate are within nEXO specifications. The PDE of the Hamamatsu VUV4 was measured for two different devices at T=233K for a mean wavelength of 189±7nm. At 3.6±0.2 V and 3.5±0.2 V of over voltage we report a PDE of 13.4±2.6% and 11±2%, corresponding to a saturation PDE of 14.8±2.8% and 12.2±2.3%, respectively. Both values are well below the 24% saturation PDE advertised by Hamamatsu. More generally, the second device tested at 3.5±0.2 V of over voltage is below the nEXO PDE requirement. The first one instead yields a PDE that is marginally close to meeting the nEXO specifications. This suggests that with modest improvements the Hamamatsu VUV4 MPPCs could be considered as an alternative to the FBK-LF Silicon Photo-Multipliers for the final design of the nEXO detector
URI
https://pr.ibs.re.kr/handle/8788114/6642
ISSN
0168-9002
Appears in Collections:
Center for Underground Physics(지하실험 연구단) > Journal Papers (저널논문)
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