Development of low radioactivity photomultiplier tubes for the XMASS-I detector

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Title
Development of low radioactivity photomultiplier tubes for the XMASS-I detector
Author(s)
K. Abe; K. Hiraide; K. Ichimura; Y. Kishimoto; K. Kobayashi; M. Kobayashi; S. Moriyama; M. Nakahata; T. Norita; H. Ogawa; K. Sato; H. Sekiya; O. Takachio; A. Takeda; S. Tasaka; M. Yamashita; B.S. Yang; N. Y. Kim; Y. D. Kim; Y. Itow; K. Kanzawa; R. Kegasa; K. Masuda; H. Takiya; K. Fushimi; G. Kanzaki; K. Martens; Y. Suzuki; B. D. Xu; R. Fujita; K. Hosokawa; K. Miuchi; N. Oka; Y. Takeuchi; Y. H. Kim; K. B. Lee; M. K. Lee; Y. Fukuda; M. Miyasaka; K. Nishijima; S. Nakamura; XMASS Collaboration
Publication Date
2019-04
Journal
NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION A-ACCELERATORS SPECTROMETERS DETECTORS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT, v.922, no., pp.171 - 176
Publisher
ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Abstract
XMASS-I is a single-phase liquid xenon detector whose purpose is direct detection of dark matter. To achieve the low background requirements necessary in the detector, a new model of photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), R10789, with a hexagonal window was developed based on the R8778 PMT used in the XMASS prototype detector. We screened the numerous component materials for their radioactivity. During development, the largest contributions to the reduction of radioactivity came from the stem and the dynode support. The glass stem was exchanged to the Kovar alloy one and the ceramic support were changed to the quartz one. R10789 is the first model of Hamamatsu Photonics K. K. that adopted these materials for low background purposes and provided a groundbreaking step for further reductions of radioactivity in PMTs. Measurements with germanium detectors showed 1.2 ± 0.3 mBq/PMT of 226Ra, less than 0.78 mBq/PMT of 228Ra, 9.1 ± 2.2 mBq/PMT of 40K, and 2.8 ± 0.2 mBq/PMT of 60Co. In this paper, the radioactive details of the developed R10789 are described together with our screening methods and the components of the PMT. © 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
URI
https://pr.ibs.re.kr/handle/8788114/5644
ISSN
0168-9002
Appears in Collections:
Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research(액시온 및 극한상호작용 연구단) > Journal Papers (저널논문)
Center for Underground Physics(지하실험 연구단) > Journal Papers (저널논문)
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