Although rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most common
chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease, diagnosis of
RA is currently based on clinical manifestations, and there
is no simple, practical assessment tool in the clinical field
to assess disease activity and severity. Recently, there has
been increasing interest in the discovery of new diagnostic
RA biomarkers that can assist in evaluating disease activity,
severity, and treatment response. Proteomics, the largescale
study of the proteome, has emerged as a powerful
technique for protein identification and characterization.
For the past 10 years, proteomic techniques have been applied
to different biological samples (synovial tissue/fluid,
blood, and urine) from RA patients and experimental animal
models. In this review, we summarize the current state
of the application of proteomics in RA and its importance
in identifying biomarkers and treatment targets.