BackgroundWaiting impulsivity in progressive supranuclear palsy-Richardson's syndrome (PSP-RS) is difficult to assess, and its regulation is known to involve nucleus accumbens (NAc) subregions. We investigated waiting impulsivity using the "jumping the gun" (JTG) sign, which is defined as premature initiation of clapping before the start signal in the three-clap test and compared clinical features of PSP-RS patients with and without the sign and analyzed neural connectivity and microstructural changes in NAc subregions.Materials and methodsA positive JTG sign was defined as the participant starting to clap before the start sign in the three-clap test. We classified participants into the JTG positive (JTG +) and JTG negative (JTG-) groups and compared their clinical features, microstructural changes, and connectivity between NAc subregions using diffusion tension imaging. The NAc was parcellated into core and shell subregions using data-driven connectivity-based methods.ResultsSeventy-seven patients with PSP-RS were recruited, and the JTG + group had worse frontal lobe battery (FAB) scores, more frequent falls, and more occurrence of the applause sign than the JTG- group. A logistic regression analysis revealed that FAB scores were associated with a positive JTG sign. The mean fiber density between the right NAc core and right medial orbitofrontal gyrus was higher in the JTG + group than the JTG- group.DiscussionWe show that the JTG sign is a surrogate marker of waiting impulsivity in PSP-RS patients. Our findings enrich the current literature by deepening our understanding of waiting impulsivity in PSP patients and introducing a novel method for its evaluation.