IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, v.35, no.12, pp.12039 - 12052
IEEE Computer Society
We study the human-in-the-loop customs inspection scenario, where an AI-assisted algorithm supports customs officers by recommending a set of imported goods to be inspected. If the inspected items are fraudulent, the officers can levy extra duties. These logs are then used as additional training data for the next iterations. Choosing to inspect suspicious items first leads to an immediate gain in customs revenue, yet such inspections may not bring new insights for learning dynamic traffic patterns. On the other hand, inspecting uncertain items can help acquire new knowledge, which will be used as a supplementary training resource to update the selection systems. Based on multiyear customs datasets from three countries, we demonstrate that some degree of exploration is necessary to cope with domain shifts in the trade data. The results show that a hybrid strategy of selecting likely fraudulent and uncertain items will eventually outperform the exploitation-only strategy.