Nanoconfinement of catalytically active molecules is a powerful strategy to control their chemical activity; however, the atomic-scale mechanisms are challenging to identify. In the present study, the site-specific reactivity of a model rhenium catalyst is studied on the subnanometer scale for complexes confined within quasi-one-dimensional molecular chains on the Ag(001) surface by scanning tunneling microscopy. Injection of tunneling electrons causes ligand dissociation in single molecules. Unexpectedly, while half of the complexes show only the dissociation, the confined molecules show also the reverse reaction. On the basis of density functional theory calculations, this drastic difference can be attributed to the limited space in confinement. That is, the split-off ligand adsorbs closer to the molecule and the dissociation causes less structural disruption. Both of these facilitate the reverse reaction. We demonstrate formation and disruption of single chemical bonds of nanoconfined molecules with potential application in molecular data storage.