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Embedding classical dynamics in a quantum computer

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Embedding classical dynamics in a quantum computer
Giannakis, Dimitrios; Ourmazd, Abbas; Pfeffer, Philipp; Schumacher, Jörg; Joanna Slawinska
Publication Date
Physical Review A, v.105, no.5
American Physical Society
© 2022 American Physical Society.We develop a framework for simulating measure-preserving, ergodic dynamical systems on a quantum computer. Our approach provides an operator-Theoretic representation of classical dynamics by combining ergodic theory with quantum information science. The resulting quantum embedding of classical dynamics (QECD) enables efficient simulation of spaces of classical observables with exponentially large dimension using a quadratic number of quantum gates. The QECD framework is based on a quantum feature map that we introduce for representing classical states by density operators on a reproducing kernel Hilbert space, H. Furthermore, an embedding of classical observables into self-Adjoint operators on H is established, such that quantum mechanical expectation values are consistent with pointwise function evaluation. In this scheme, quantum states and observables evolve unitarily under the lifted action of Koopman evolution operators of the classical system. Moreover, by virtue of the reproducing property of H, the quantum system is pointwise-consistent with the underlying classical dynamics. To achieve a quantum computational advantage, we project the state of the quantum system onto a finite-rank density operator on a 2n-dimensional tensor product Hilbert space associated with n qubits. By employing discrete Fourier-Walsh transforms of spectral functions, the evolution operator of the finite-dimensional quantum system is factorized into tensor product form, enabling implementation through an n-channel quantum circuit of size O(n) and no interchannel communication. Furthermore, the circuit features a state preparation stage, also of size O(n), and a quantum Fourier transform stage of size O(n2), which makes predictions of observables possible by measurement in the standard computational basis. We prove theoretical convergence results for these predictions in the large-qubit limit, n?8. In light of these properties, QECD provides a consistent simulator of the evolution of classical observables, realized through projective quantum measurement, which is able to simulate spaces of classical observables of dimension 2n using circuits of size O(n2). We demonstrate the consistency of the scheme in prototypical dynamical systems involving periodic and quasiperiodic oscillators on tori. These examples include simulated quantum circuit experiments in Qiskit Aer, as well as actual experiments on the IBM Quantum System One.
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Center for Climate Physics(기후물리 연구단) > 1. Journal Papers (저널논문)
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