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Different mechanisms for daytime, nighttime, and compound heatwaves in southern China

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Title
Different mechanisms for daytime, nighttime, and compound heatwaves in southern China
Author(s)
Luo, Ming; Lau, Ngar-Cheung; Liu, Zhen
Publication Date
2022-06
Journal
Weather and Climate Extremes, v.36
Publisher
Elsevier B.V.
Abstract
© 2022 The AuthorsHeatwaves often cause immense stress on human society and the natural environment. While heatwaves can be classified into daytime, nighttime, and compound daytime-nighttime types, the specific processes associated with different heatwave types remain poorly understood. In this paper, we identify different mechanisms operating in compound (i.e., extreme heat during both day and night) and independent daytime and nighttime heatwaves in southern China. Compound heatwaves generally exhibit stronger temperature increases than either daytime or nighttime types. Daytime heatwaves are accompanied by increased downward shortwave radiation under a clear sky with reduced cloud cover and moisture. Nighttime heatwaves are characterized by more cloudy and moist conditions, and increased downward longwave radiation at the surface at night. A combination of these conditions for daytime and nighttime heatwaves prevail during compound heatwaves. All three types of heatwaves are associated with strengthening and eastward extension of the South Asian high (SAH) in the upper troposphere, and strengthening and westward extension of the western North Pacific subtropical high (WNPSH) in the lower and middle troposphere. Further examinations suggest that compound heatwaves are accompanied by the strongest intensification of SAH and WNPSH. Compared with daytime heatwaves, nighttime events are associated with a stronger amplitude of SAH and WNPSH, and both highs tend to extend more southward when nighttime heatwaves occur. This southward extension induces an anomalous lower-level anticyclone that drives a southwesterly wind anomaly over southeastern China. This circulation feature transports warmer and more humid air towards southern China. The enhanced concentration of water vapor leads to increased absorption of outgoing longwave radiation, and increased re-emission of longwave radiation to the surface, thus resulting in surface warming at night.
URI
https://pr.ibs.re.kr/handle/8788114/11401
DOI
10.1016/j.wace.2022.100449
ISSN
2212-0947
Appears in Collections:
Center for Climate Physics(기후물리 연구단) > 1. Journal Papers (저널논문)
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