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Quantification of Enhancement in Atmospheric CO2 Background Due to Indian Biospheric Fluxes and Fossil Fuel Emissions

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Title
Quantification of Enhancement in Atmospheric CO2 Background Due to Indian Biospheric Fluxes and Fossil Fuel Emissions
Author(s)
Halder, Santanu; Tiwari, Yogesh K.; Valsala, Vinu; M. G. Sreeush; Sijikumar, S.; Janardanan, Rajesh; Maksyutov, Shamil
Publication Date
2021-07
Journal
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, v.126, no.13
Publisher
Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Abstract
© 2021. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.Regional carbon emissions impact global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) background concentrations. This study quantified the enhancement in the atmospheric CO2 mole fractions due to biospheric and fossil fuel fluxes from India. Sensitivity experiments using model simulations were conducted, allowing CO2 enhancement due to biospheric and fossil fuel fluxes from India to diffuse into the global atmospheric background. The areal extent of column-averaged enhancement of 0.2 ppm and above due to Indian fluxes are spread over a larger area covering the Indian subcontinent, neighboring Asian regions, and the north Indian Ocean in all four seasons. The boundary layer CO2 enhancement due to biospheric fluxes (fossil fuel fluxes) have a maximum range of −2.6 to +1.4 ppm (1.8–2.0 ppm) most time of the year. At higher altitude, the amplitudes of enhancement are reduced from ±1.8 to ±0.6 ppm as we go up from 850 to 500 hPa due to diffusion by prevailing atmospheric dynamics and convection. With the information of the areal extent of >0.2 ppm CO2 enhancement due to Indian fluxes, we have evaluated the representativeness of satellite observations (GOSAT and OCO-2) in capturing those enhancements. Both the satellite coverage show a similar number of observations (0.1 per day) during all seasons except for June to August, wherein the cloud screening eliminates almost all the satellite data over the region. Within this areal extent, the satellite XCO2 shows average anomalies of nearly ±2.0 ppm; it is a valuable piece of information because it is well above the retrieval uncertainty, yet capturing the potential enhancement due to fluxes from India. The study implies that the regions of enhancement greater than 0.2 ppm can be considered locations for surface observations representing Indian fluxes. Similarly, the region with enhancement greater than one ppm could be covered by satellites/airborne observations to discern enhancement in the atmospheric CO2 mole fractions due to Indian fluxes.
URI
https://pr.ibs.re.kr/handle/8788114/10125
DOI
10.1029/2021JD034545
ISSN
2169-897X
Appears in Collections:
Center for Climate Physics(기후물리 연구단) > 1. Journal Papers (저널논문)
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