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Bimal, Pudasaini
분자활성 촉매반응 연구단
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Experimental and Computational Studies on the Ruthenium-Catalyzed Dehydrative C-H Coupling of Phenols with Aldehydes for the Synthesis of 2-Alkylphenol, Benzofuran, and Xanthene Derivatives

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Title
Experimental and Computational Studies on the Ruthenium-Catalyzed Dehydrative C-H Coupling of Phenols with Aldehydes for the Synthesis of 2-Alkylphenol, Benzofuran, and Xanthene Derivatives
Author(s)
Pannilawithana, Nuwan; Bimal Pudasaini; Mu-Hyun Baik; Yi, Chae S.
Publication Date
2021-08
Journal
Journal of the American Chemical Society, v.143, no.33, pp.13428 - 13440
Publisher
American Chemical Society
Abstract
© 2021 American Chemical Society.The cationic Ru-H complex [(C6H6)(PCy3)(CO)RuH]+BF4- (1) was found to be an effective catalyst for the dehydrative C-H coupling reaction of phenols and aldehydes to form 2-alkylphenol products. The coupling reaction of phenols with branched aldehydes selectively formed 1,1-disubstituted benzofurans, while the coupling reaction with salicylaldehydes yielded xanthene derivatives. A normal deuterium isotope effect was observed from the coupling reaction of 3-methoxyphenol with benzaldehyde and 2-propanol/2-propanol-d8 (kH/kD = 2.3 ± 0.3). The carbon isotope effect was observed on the benzylic carbon of the alkylation product from the coupling reaction of 3-methoxyphenol with 4-methoxybenzaldehyde (C(3) 1.021(3)) and on both benzylic and ortho-arene carbons from the coupling reaction with 4-trifluorobenzaldehdye (C(2) 1.017(3), C(3) 1.011(2)). The Hammett plot from the coupling reaction of 3-methoxyphenol with para-substituted benzaldehydes p-X-C6H4CHO (X = OMe, Me, H, F, Cl, CF3) displayed a V-shaped linear slope. Catalytically relevant Ru-H complexes were observed by NMR from a stoichiometric reaction mixture of 1, 3-methoxyphenol, benzaldehyde, and 2-propanol in CD2Cl2. The DFT calculations provided a detailed catalysis mechanism featuring an electrophilic aromatic substitution of the aldehyde followed by the hydrogenolysis of the hydroxy group. The calculations also revealed a mechanistic rationale for the strong electronic effect of the benzaldehdye substrates p-X-C6H4CHO (X = OMe, CF3) in controlling the turnover-limiting step. The catalytic C-H coupling method provides an efficient synthetic protocol for 2-alkylphenols, 1,1-disubstituted benzofurans, and xanthene derivatives without employing any reactive reagents or forming wasteful byproducts.
URI
https://pr.ibs.re.kr/handle/8788114/10353
DOI
10.1021/jacs.1c06887
ISSN
0002-7863
Appears in Collections:
Center for Catalytic Hydrocarbon Functionalizations(분자활성 촉매반응 연구단) > 1. Journal Papers (저널논문)
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