Sepsis is a life-threatening reaction that occurs when the body's severe response to an infection damages the host's own tissues. Sepsis has been globally recognized as a fatal disease. Rapid treatment of sepsis requires prompt identification, administering antibiotics, careful hemodynamic support, and treating the cause of the infection. Clinical outcomes of sepsis depend on early diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Unfortunately, current sepsis diagnosis and treatment, such as polymerase chain reaction-based assay, blood culture assay, and antibiotic therapy, are ineffective; consequently, sepsis-related mortality remains high and increases antimicrobial resistance. To overcome this challenge, nanotechnology, which involves engineering at a nanoscale, is used for diagnosing and treating sepsis. Preclinical models have shown protective effects and potential utility in managing septic shock. Furthermore, nanotechnology treatments based on diverse materials result in the effective treatment of sepsis, improving the survival rate. In this review, we present an overview of the recent research advancements in nanotechnology to diagnose and treat sepsis with a brief introduction to sepsis.